All the reviews of Mask are coming in at the same time! Today, we have this beauty from the Summer 2017 edition of SWSF Newsletter, written by Kevin Avison. Many thanks to him.
This is a book that lives up to its title. The author’s experience, as actor, maker and workshop facilitator, shines through in a practical and inspiring account of the subject in drama, dramatherapy and groupwork. The author’s experience is not solely artistic, although there is no lack of art in these pages. The book also draws from Mike Chase’s innovative dramatherapy in the high security part of our penal system. It is a testament to his enthusiasm as well as his commitment.
After a thumbnail sketch setting out the use of masks in cultural history, the book goes on to a clear explanation of mask-making and the depiction of human types using colour as well as gesture. This is the organising heart of Mask, which takes Rudolf Steiner’s indications on the four temperaments as the point of departure, using these as active ingredient rather than mere notion or theory. As set out here, mask-making and design provides a hands-on encounter with temperamental qualities so that teachers, or anyone wanting to understand or gain a fresh insight into this aspect of personality, will be able to discover the temperaments anew, practically and directly. With mask in place, the author then provides methods of improvisation for working with them.
The techniques described by the author are ones that could be readily incorporated into the classroom and I would recommend it to any teacher thinking of using these in their drama work. However, a word of caution is needed: acting with a mask may seem to be the answer for classes that are unusually self-conscious or unwilling to reach out of themselves through drama. This can be a mistake. Unless well-prepared through movement, improvisation and games, a mask can serve as a guise behind which pupils retire. In fact, wearing a mask calls on the wearer to “fill” it and project through it, something that demands a certain confidence and maturity in itself. Mask: Making, Using and Performing is an impressive and helpful addition to a teacher’s toolkit. It is highly recommended.
This review was written by Peter Howe, and we thank him for his wonderfully thoughtful and warm consideration of the title.
Masks have accompanied human cultures since the beginnings of time. Spiritual leaders, healers and story-tellers used them to embody ‘the characters, spirits and gods from the stories, which would guide the ethical choices and moral development of society.’ In contemporary Western society, however, their use became marginalised, as human consciousness grew increasingly distant from its origins. Designs became ‘either sentimental or grotesque.’
Mike Chase’s great achievement, in a lifetime of designing, making and working with masks, and now in the writing of this outstanding book, has been to reconnect the medium with its spiritual origins through the use of archetypes; ‘to seek out meaningful cosmologies, ordered wholes, on which to develop my practice as a mask-maker… the temperaments and other archetypes, including the seven planets and the zodiac, have been the foundation stones for my mask designs.’ In his work as a teacher, therapist and theatre director, with community groups, specialist colleges and in prisons, he has rediscovered the healing, embodying and educating roles of mask. In a culture whose focus is almost entirely on the individual, he reinvents mask-use and design for the self-understanding, development and balance of individuals and groups.
He sees it is a medium through which the individual can find their voice and tell their story. ‘The outside of the mask becomes the externalised expression of an inner state, boiled down to its essence, arriving at an archetype that also has meaning for others. Filling the mask from the inside with the expression and breath, the body and gestures of the heightened state of the wearer open a doorway into another world. This vast and awe-inspiring world, both beautiful and terrifying, can be managed, named and expressed through the container of the mask.’
This is a beautifully produced book, illustrated abundantly with Jane Chase’s colour photographs which are works of art in themselves. It is endorsed by Clark Baim as ‘a generous book, full of clear guidance and practical wisdom.’ It is a practical handbook for making masks and their use in many educational, therapeutic and social contexts, but it is so much more. In an effortless yet energetic style, Chase weaves together practical instruction, wise, emotional understanding and a theoretical underpinning laid out in economic, jargon-free language.
In particular, Chase’s work is based upon the use of one set of archetypes: the four temperaments – choleric, phlegmatic, sanguine and melancholic. He cites others who have applied an understanding of the temperaments in modern contexts: Carl Jung in psychotherapy, Katharine Cook-Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers, (the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, used extensively in the business sector), Michael Chekhov in drama training, Rudolf Steiner in education and teacher training. ‘What captured my attention,’ he says, ‘was the simplicity and depth of this cosmology and the manner by which it is applicable in all walks of life. This can be a tool to understand the self, relationships and behaviour, managing a classroom, training actors for the stage, mask makers for the theatre and design, mask using as a professional development process in education, business, therapy and theatre performance.’
A fifth mask is included: the neutral, ‘the mask of unmasking.’ This is about being present in the here and now, and a preparation for entering into the ‘powerful and extreme states of being’ which are encountered through the four temperaments.
The book is in four parts:
Background to masks and to the four temperaments.
Mask-making. Clear instructions for designing and constructing masks.
Mask-using. A host of exercises, involving three elements: bodily movement, imagination and the spoken word. With charming line drawings by Allmut Ffrench.
The application of mask work across many fields: education and special education, teacher training, psychotherapy and psychodrama, organisational and leadership training, community groups, theatre. And, not least, some stories from the author’s extensive experience, which range from deeply moving to hilarious.
As well as a handbook, MASK is also about what lies behind the masks we all adopt every day. ‘… a relationship begins to develop between what is seen and what is still unseen… The psychology of masks as they challenge the notion of identity invites us to reconsider who the “self” or the “other” might be. The elemental psychology of the temperaments seems to awaken an ancient tacit knowledge of human nature, inviting us to consider the masks we might be wearing. These masks are not cultural, or social, but rather correspond to a constitutional self situated somewhere between the body and the soul.’
In an age when loss of meaning, the struggle to find the self and to understand the self, all contribute to illness, mental health issues, alienation and criminality, this book is a source of understanding, recovery and even comfort. Every library, school, college, drama department, therapy centre, community and arts centre will be enriched by this; teachers, trainers, actors, therapists and facilitators will be inspired and assisted in their work. As John Wright says in his Foreword, ‘You learn through ‘doing’ with Mike and this is the quality that comes out when you read his book.
This review by Daniel Skinner has just appeared in New View, issue 84. It’s a brilliant issue, which we strongly recommend.
There are a number of classic performance books that offer performers and other interested students of life a map for performative activity as an inner pathway. I mean performance in the widest sense, to include any activity in which the ‘I’ of the participant is in a condition of perceptive wakefulness, alert to activity of their inner life and their fellow human beings.
Peter Brook’s The Empty Space, Michael Chekov’s To the Actor, Augusto Boal’s Games for Actors and Non-Actors, Jacques Lecoq’s The Moving Body and Rudolf Steiner’s Speech and Drama Course, for instance, might occupy a space on every performer’s bookshelf – eurythmists, actors, teachers, social workers, doctors, parents – each one of us who plays a role in relation to another, whether in the theatre or not.
To this library might now be added another volume, Mike Chase’s Mask: Making, Using and Performing. Those readers who are familiar with Chase’s work as a director, teacher, therapist, mask maker and performer will welcome a guide and practical manual for the principles and wisdom that underlie his work. This book earns the right to sit alongside those listed above just in its thorough, grounded attention to every detail of every aspect of mask work – from conception to making to performing. Furthermore, Mask exhibits not only a thorough professionalism, but the stamp of a true artist – the willingness and will to keep learning, no matter what stage of development one may have arrived at. It is this humility, combined with expertise, that prompts me to suggest this that this is a work to which readers will return time and again to find new levels of meaning with each new reading.
Chase is a practical theatre-maker, teacher, therapist, and workshop leader whose life-long work with masks has led him to a profound understanding of human nature. Those of us who recognise the framework of the four temperaments (Choleric, Phlegmatic, Sanguine and Melancholic – the soul/constitution counterpart of the four elements of Fire, Water, Air and Earth), particularly those working in the Waldorf movement would wo well to study Chase’s approaches to, and deep relationship with, this model of interpreting human archetypes. For those who are new to the idea of the four temperaments as a template for interpretation of human behaviour and physical type, this book would be a wonderful introduction.
Mask is both a practical mask manual, for both makers and users – generously laid out with numerous photographs and illustrations by Allmut Ffrench – and also a guide to the way in which the temperaments inform our adult life. I would heartily recommend any performer, teacher, carer, therapist or parent to read it.
This review was published in the Anthroposophical Society in Great Britain‘s newsletter, Summer 2017, volume 94.
The work of Mike Chase will be familiar to many in connection with his mask making for the Mystery Drama productions and, more recently, for his remarkable drama therapy work in a high security prison. The title adds that the work is “inspired by the four temperaments, for use in workshops, performance and therapy”. Beginning with a helpful background of the historical uses of mask in drama, the author describes in careful detail how to create masks, which leads on to creating masks for the four temperaments in the appropriate colours. He then describes how these can be worked with using simple exercises and improvisations, many of which will be familiar to drama students, but used here in the context of employing the masks and working with the temperaments. These are for use in various contexts from theatre productions to drama therapy. Although of a specialist nature, the book nonetheless is a helpful guide to how one might work with the temperaments in other workshop situations. It is clear and readable and highly recommended to anyone interested in these fields.
Join Mike Chase, a mask practitioner with decades of experience in the field of mask-making and using, for a lecture about the origin of masks and a demonstration of the use of masks in drama, therapy and education. The evening will include a talk, looking at mask making, mask using with actors and the spontaneous involvement of volunteers from the audience, with the opportunity to try out different masks and discuss what this experience might mean. The book will be available, and you will be able to redeem your launch ticket against the price of the book.
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